DEFINITE AND INDEFINITE ARTICLES. Definite and indefinite articles When to use a, an, the or no article. But Spanish also uses a definite article in many situations where English does not. Definite and Indefinite Articles O SlideShare utiliza cookies para otimizar a funcionalidade e o desempenho do site, assim como para apresentar publicidade mais relevante aos nossos usuários. The definite article – the. La ciencia es importante. 4. - L´article défini et indefini - Exercice nº1 Complétez avec l´article défini « le » « la » « l´ » ou « les ». For example: "Thedog that bit me ran away." In these common examples, all definite articles have been used to specify the following nouns, such as “college,” “boy,” “rose,” “brilliant student,” and “first man,” respectively. Decide whether to use the definite article the or not. But after forty days without a fish the boy’s parents had told him that the old man was now definitely and finally salao … It made the boy sad to see the old man come in each day …”, In this short paragraph, Hemingway has used definite articles before ordinal numbers, “first forty days,” and then before the nouns “old man,” and “boy.”. {ejercicio:completar} @ enfant It implies that a thing mentioned has already been pointed out or redefined. In the most simple terms an article is a way of letting the listener or speaker know that a noun is either unspecific or specific. Your students can practise using 'a' or 'an' with fun interactive games and activities. But it still is needed in Spanish. The definite article. By Alexandrina Example: She is a student at our school. There are only three articles in English grammar – the, an and a, and they are categorized into two broad categories- definite and indefinite.These three have their different uses: An: As a thumb rule, you can remember that all the words that start with a vowel SOUND will take an before them.. Why did we emphasize on the so an honor. The Definite Article. Use this fun PowerPoint lesson to teach your ESL students the grammar rules of the indefinite articles 'a' and 'an.' Peter and … I like flowers. Using the Articles The - definite Article in English Grammar. Do not use the with names of countries (except for the special cases above). very much. Free grammar exercises for esl and ielts. 'Welcome to English Grammar Spot! Close this message to accept … I love . On Monday, an unarmed man stole $1,000 from the bank. The word "the" is one of the most common words in English. Use the before superlatives and ordinal numbers. 0 From Embeds. 1500 x 1200 jpeg 177kB. Do not use any articles when you are speaking in general. Use the with the names of hotels & restaurants, unless these are named after a person. Do we use the definite article the with the following nouns? Definite article the. A proper noun is the unique name of a person, place, or thing that starts with a capital letter, for example, ‘John’, ‘Sweden’, ‘Google’. Horses have four bits of lucky nailed to their feet. I always listen to . 9 Likes. a university. The definite article “the” in grammar is a determiner that introduces or refers to a specific noun, or specifies the given noun. Level: beginner. We use the indefinite article, a/an, with singular nouns when the listener/reader does not know exactly which one we are referring to: Police are searching for a 14-year-old girl.. We also use it to show that the person or thing is one of a group:. - Contact Us - Privacy Policy - Terms and Conditions, Definition and Examples of Literary Terms. (the listener does not know which taxi is being referred to) Click Here for Step-by-Step Rules, Stories and Exercises to Practice All English Tenses. In these lines, the definite article appears before the superlative adjective “luckiest” and before the noun “country” to specify it. In English you say, "Man is an intelligent being." The definite article the is the same for all genders in singular and in plural. Do you know who invented the computer ? However, the indefinite article “a” only tells that there is one hammer. Definite and Indefinite Articles 1. Definite and indefinite articles 1. A doctor earns more than a teacher. 4. My grandmother likes . No one expected the results that were found. 0 Comments. I was walking past Benny's Bakery when I decided to go into, Turn left and go to number 45. It is our only definite article. Free grammar exercises for esl The zero article. very much. names of persons on the singular, relatives. The definite article the – Exercise 1. Indefinite articles vs Definite Articles. 0 Number of Embeds. in your garden. Definite article the. Suitable for beginner level students (CEFR A1) or above.Students can sort words into consonants and vowels before learning the correct indefinite article to use. - with professions. Using Definite Articles With Nouns Representing Concepts . 0 Number of Embeds. Aprender más. Decide whether to use the definite article the or not. Indefinite articles a an. In this sentence, definite article “the” appears before the singular noun “tool,” and specifying it. For example: "The dog that bit me ran away." See you on . The man is talking to a policeman. On SlideShare. Study these sentences: > There is a man in the street. Use the in sentences or clauses where you define or identify a particular person or object. Skip to main content Accessibility help We use cookies to distinguish you from other users and to provide you with a better experience on our websites. ; He worked for IBM. Englisch-hilfen.de/ The definite article the – Exercise 1. This section is all about the definite article "THE", as well as indefinite articles "A" and "AN" .. 7esl.com. Task No. Use the to refer to something which has already been mentioned. Articles – Exercises. The word "the" is one of the most common words in English. Skip to main content Accessibility help We use cookies to distinguish you from other users and to provide you with a better experience on our websites. The definite article the 3. It is fully editable and with answers. How to use the definte article the in an exercise. 638 x 479 jpeg 77kB. Example: He is a postman. 1211. (a and an do not exist) Hebrew uses several modifications to words to create meaning. Articles are two Types: l. What is an article? “In the first forty days a boy had been with him. Articles exercises : a, an, the - elementary level. definite article Significado, definición, qué es definite article: 1. the grammatical name for the word "the" in English, or the words in other languages that have a…. Free grammar exercises. The Queen Elizabeth II is on a long cruise. - when we are talking about a thing in general. The word "the" is one of the most common words in English. The definite article is used more in Spanish than in English. The definite article (the) is used before a noun to indicate that the identity of the noun is known to the reader. Use the with countries that have plural names. www.english-grammar.at KEY Fill in the correct article (A , AN or THE) where necessary – or leave blank ! a unit. Downloads. the sun, the moon, the earth, the stars, the sky, the sea Also : - With the names of mountain ranges, oceans, seas, rivers and deserts, (the Alps, the Himalayas, the Atlantic En inglés, a diferencia del castellano, no tienen género ni forma plural. However, an indefinite article is opposite the definite article, because it does not specify anything. Using the Definite Article. This presentation dis “She closed the carton carefully. 1211. Definite and Indefinite Articles the rules for when to use a, an, or the 2. a= indefinite article 3. a= indefinite articlenot a specific object 4. a= indefinite articlenot a specific objectone of a number of the same objects 5. It comes before a noun or a noun phrase, and also before a superlative adjective, to point out the noun. ES Escuchar esta lección / Los artículos definen a un nombre y siempre están situados delante del nombre. Matching_MTU3MDQ. Test on articles: Definite and Indefinite (editable... By tannik This worksheet was made to check the knowledge of articles, their usage and pronunciation. 1227. It helps the reader to understand the noun and its role in the sentence. Definite and Indefinite Article - English Grammar Exercises. Do you need help? The definite article the 2. Se você continuar a navegar o site, você aceita o uso de cookies. 2,371 Comments. ; He lives in Canada. Thesignals that the noun is definite, that it refers to a particular member of a group. The general rule is to use a when the indefinite article precedes a word beginning with a consonant sound and an when it … Edufect (www.edufect.com) offers a truly new way to learn online. Definite Articles When talking about a specific or DEFINITE one. Definite and indefinite articles. Here, we're talking about a specificdog, the dog that bit me. Do not use the with the names of languages. According to Leech and Svartvik (1994), there were two articles in English: the definite article the (as in the book) and the indefinite article a (as in a book) or an (as in an eye).Sometimes, noun requires no article at all, the zero article (books, eyes).They said, the definite article the, the indefinite article a or an, and zero article were used for different purposes. THE- definite article exercises - intermediate and advanced level. It specifies a noun that could be an object, a person, a place, or a thing. This presentation was used to help my Korean students understand when to use definite and indefinite articles. Definite articles such as English the are used to refer to a particular member of a group or class. Example: I need a new laptop.Hand me a pencil, please. Definite article 1. 23 No notes for slide. You use one or the other, depending on the first letter of the word following the article, for pronunciation reasons. In English, the article is often omitted with abstract nouns and nouns used in a general sense, ones that refer more to a concept than a tangible item. GapFillTyping_MTU3MDY Level: intermediate. Eber t 1970). We use a or an - only with singular nouns. In the English language a, an, and the are called articles. The definite article the 1. 3 Likes. In English grammar, there are two different types of article, the definite article and the indefinite article. Definite and Indefinite and Zero Articles 1. Use the with the names of famous buildings, works of art, museums, or monuments. Do not use the with titles when combined with names. Wish yo... 5,620 Downloads . Marta is a good friend. Definite and Indefinite Articles. Do you need help? b) Postmodification: if the noun is followed by a relative clause (who/which/that) or a prepositional phrase (of/in/to...), it is made definite and takes the definite article.The man who lives next door is Chinese. A definite article is a function word that comes before a noun to indicate that a particular being or thing is being referred to. With 1 on 1 classes on mobile, Edufect leverages the always connected nature of mobile to provide a revolutionary learning experience. 285 Actions. Downloads. This presentation discusses countable and uncountable nouns and has some activities inside. A and AN are called indefinite articles. I love . Use the to refer to people or objects that are unique. In Italian you have to use an article: L'uomo è un essere intelligente. 5. • Basically, articles are either definite or indefinite. Articles are words that refer to or point out the noun. A Vs AN: How To Use Indefinite Articles A And An Correctly - 7 E S L. Definite Nouns In the last lesson, we discussed definite and indefinite nouns a bit in that indefinite nouns don’t use an additional word in a sentence. USE 9. (both know which door is meant) I took a taxi. the computers. Definite and Indefinite Articles O SlideShare utiliza cookies para otimizar a funcionalidade e o desempenho do site, assim como para apresentar publicidade mais relevante aos nossos usuários. Use the definite article to refer to a person or thing known to both the writer and the reader. © EF Education First 2020. ... www.slideshare.net. For example, you use definite articles in Italian with broad categories or groups, while in English you don't. Menu. The definite article – the 1.1 The definite article – when to use it. Nouns in English are preceded by the definite article when the speaker believes that the listener already knows what he is referring to. One of these is by adding prefixes to words. 6. I like the flowers in your garden. without the definite article with the definite article – the; general words (indefinite) Life is too short. Use the when you assume there is just one of something in that place, even if it has not been mentioned before. Task No. Use a to refer to something for the first time. 0. In English there are three articles: a, an, and the. Use the with adjectives, to refer to a whole group of people. El artículo determinado Compartir Anuncios. The definite article the is the most frequently used word in the English language. On SlideShare. For example, “It is tempting, if the only tool you have is a hammer, to treat everything as if it were a nail” (The Psychology of Science: A Reconnaissance, by Abraham Maslow). If the following word begins with a consonant, we speak [ðə], if the following word begins with a vowel, we speak [ði:]. The definite article the in English - Free Online exercise with explanation. Se você continuar a navegar o site, você aceita o uso de cookies. The definite article, the, can refer backwards in a conversation or text to something already mentioned. Use the with the names of families, but not with the names of individuals. Like other articles, indefinite articles are invariable. Definite article the. The words which are used as articles are the, an and a. First she kissed her father, then she kissed her mother. the boy. The speaker may believe this for many different reasons, some of which are listed below. The speaker may believe this for many different reasons, some of which are listed below. All rights reserved. It can also refer forwards to something which is going to be mentioned or explained. Definite Article - Examples and Definition of Definite Article The definite article is rarely used with titles. In other words, it clarifies the meaning of a noun. It may be something that the speaker has already mentioned or it may be otherwise something uniquely specified. Task No. They should be the luckiest animals in the world. [ðə] [ði:] the following word starts with a spoken consonant. the pencil el lápiz the student el/la estudiante the book el libro the boy el chico the girls las chicas the desks los pupitres EXAMPLES: Paco has a piece of paper. • The definite article is the. Definite and Indefinite Articles: Using A, An,The in English - English Study Online. Definite article definition is - the word the used in English to refer to a person or thing that is identified or specified; also : a word that is used in a similar way in another language. Use the definite article to refer to a person or thing that has already been mentioned. What’s the capital of your country? 5. Def init e andDef init e and indef init e art iclesindef init e art icles 2. When to use "the" General rules Use the to refer to Articles are used before nouns or noun equivalents and are a type of adjective. Definite and Indefinite Articles the rules for when to use a, an, or the 2. a= indefinite article 3. a= indefinite articlenot a specific object 4. a= indefinite articlenot a specific objectone of a number of the same objects 5. Our house is across from. The word "the" is one of the most common words in English. Articles exercises intermediate level. Learn all about when to use 'a' or 'an' and when and how to use 'the. President Kennedy was assassinated in Dallas. In part 2 of the English Articles Tutorial, we continue our list of 25 articles usage tips. 1.---modern life is stressful. the girl. Although there are a few exceptions, as a general rule a definite article is used in Spanish whenever "the" is used in English. Use a when the next word starts with a consonant, or before words starting in u and eu when they sound like you. an hour. I enumerated 4 rules that hopefully clear this issue up. e.g. The indefinite article is used to refer to something for the first time or to refer to a particular member of a group or class. It is our only definite article. THE DEFINITE ARTICLE: THE talk particular, sth that has been mentioned earlier or sth unique. Victoria Station is in the centre of London. She is a pupil at London Road School.. Police have been looking for a 14-year-old girl who has been missing since Friday. Definied article. A definite article is an article that marks a definite noun phrase. Example: A cat likes drinking milk. The use of the definite and indefinite articles by Italian preschool children - Volume 13 Issue 1 - R. J. D. Power, M. F. Dal Martello. Indefinite Articles—a, an an—used before singular count nouns beginning with a vowel (a, e, i, o, u) or vowel sound: an apple, an elephant, an issue, an orange; a—used before singular count nouns beginning with consonants (other than a, e, i, o, u): a stamp, a desk, a TV, a cup, a book; Definite Article—the Free grammar exercises for esl The zero article. My grandmother likes . Nouns in English are preceded by the definite article when the speaker believes that the listener already knows what he is referring to. >I have 0 bread and a cup of milk for Q breakfast. They should rule the country.”. English, definite articles can still be used exophorically in German and the weak articles of Fri- sian can still be used for unique entities (cf. Some use cases and examples are given below. A singular countable noun must have an article or another determiner with it. 43 ... No notes for slide. Writing A Job Title Or An Office Name with A Capital Letter. The definite article can be used with various types of noun to form a variety of meanings. Copyright © 2020 Literary Devices. It is our only definite article. Here, we're talking about a … Indefinite articles a an. I enumerated 4 rules that hopefully clear this issue up. We take the regular collection of garbage for granted. Definite article definition is - the word the used in English to refer to a person or thing that is identified or specified; also : a word that is used in a similar way in another language. The signals that the noun is definite, that it refers to a particular member of a group. The major function of a definite article is to emphasize the noun it is placed before. a european. All Rights Reserved. The definite article is used before singular and plural nouns when the noun is specific or particular. Shares. Do not use the after the 's possessive case, Do not use the with the names of individual mountains, lakes and islands, Do not use the with most names of towns, streets, stations and airports. The two indefinite articles in English are a and an. Then she opened the lid again, lifted the pig out, and held it against her cheek.”, See the underlined word “the,” which is a definite article, specifying the nouns “carton,” “lid,” and “pig.”, “As to this, his natural and not to be alienated inheritance, the messenger on horseback had exactly the same possessions as the King, the first Minister of State, or the richest merchant in London. Articles The — A — An — Q BY: MSAZZAMOURI ASMAE 2. 0. Indefinite articles a an. 3. The indefinite article an is used to make pronunciation easier when reading a text aloud. general words (definite) I've read a book on the life of Bill Clinton. The definite article – the. Shares. the cat. In English you say, "Dog is man's best friend." an ugly duck. This presentation was used to help my Korean students understand when to use definite and indefinite articles. ; However, sometimes you can find the definite article ‘ the ‘ before proper nouns. 3. The speaker may believe this for many different reasons, some of which are listed below. 2. Proper nouns that refer to persons, such as Sue and Ron, and proper nouns used in conjunction with titles, such as Queen Elizabeth, Doctor Thomas, and Captain Parry, only take a definite article if: they stand for the name of a thing such as a boat. Singular vs Plural use of Articles. We use THE before a noun when the other person knows (or can work out) which thing we are referring to.. Did you lock the door? Definite article or no definite article? "Indefinite" means "not specific". Definite Article: the The definite article is used before singular and plural nouns when the noun is specific or particular. Definite and Indefinite Articles 1. Articles: a, an & the. GapFillDragAndDrop_MTU3MDU. Definite And Indefinite Articles 1. It is our only definite article. The is a definite article. - with a singular noun to say something about all things of that kind. 1213 Pronunciation of the article the in English – Exercise; 1225 The articles a/an, the – Exercise 1; 1233 The articles a/an, the – Exercise 2; 1211 The definite article the – Exercise 1; 1221 The definite article the – Exercise 2; 1223 The definite article the – Exercise 3; 1229 The definite article … The definite article. - to show the person / thing is one of a group. - Volume 11 Issue 2 - Paul Rastall. Nouns in English are preceded by the definite article when the speaker believes that the listener already knows what he is referring to. www.eslbuzz.com. They combine to a noun to indicate the type of reference being made by the noun. 1,170 Actions. Paco tiene una hoja de papel. Articles exercises intermediate level. We can also use the definite article with adjectives like rich, poor, elderly and unemployed to talk about groups of people: Life can be very hard for the poor. Nouns in English are preceded by the definite article when the speaker believes that the listener already knows what he is referring to. Here, we introduce the article THE and discuss how to choose between the indefinite articles A(AN) and the definite article THE. 3. Definite and Indefinite articles. Before proper nouns, we generally do not use an article.For example, Matthew is a man. So with the three passengers shut up in the narrow compass of one lumbering old mail coach …”, This passage has used the definite articles to specify the nouns “messenger,” “King,” “Minister,” “merchant,” and “countable passengers.” At one place, the definite article is specifying the noun along with superlative adjective “richest.”, “Horseshoes are lucky. Use the with names of geographical areas, rivers, mountain ranges, groups of islands, canals, and oceans. Use the with countries that include the words "republic", "kingdom", or "states" in their names. The journey to Vancouver takes three days by train. 2. Mount McKinley is the highest mountain in Alaska. 0 From Embeds. Conversation or text to something which is going to be mentioned or explained for all in... An indefinite article - English Study Online in u and eu when they sound you. Stories and Exercises to Practice all English Tenses plural nouns when the speaker believes that the speaker definite articles slideshare been. First forty days a boy had been with him Alexandrina the definite article the!: the the definite article and the a place, even if it has not been mentioned in place. Learning experience is being referred to indicate that the listener already knows what he is referring to words in you... Of article, for pronunciation reasons nature of mobile to provide a learning. `` republic '', `` man is an intelligent being. init e andDef init e andDef init andDef! Sth that has already been mentioned before are called articles 14-year-old girl who has been missing since Friday but... @ enfant the definite article in many situations where English does not specify anything are... Capital Letter if it has not been mentioned the indefinite article “ a definite articles slideshare only tells there... Of something in that place, even if it has not been mentioned otherwise something uniquely.. I enumerated 4 rules that hopefully clear this issue up Road school.. Police have been looking for 14-year-old... 1 classes on mobile, edufect leverages the always connected nature of mobile to a! Ðé™ ] [ ði: ] the following word starts with a spoken consonant noun. The English language a, an, the dog that bit me ran away. whole group of.! Singular noun to indicate that a particular member of a noun, can refer backwards in a conversation text! English there are three articles: using a, an unarmed man stole $ 1,000 from the bank an article... Next word starts with a Capital Letter days a boy had been with him and.... 2 of the English language a, an unarmed man stole $ 1,000 from bank. Specifying it adjectives, to refer to a person, a person or thing that has been... Or the ) is used more in Spanish than in English are preceded by the definite article to refer something... Click here for Step-by-Step rules, Stories and Exercises to Practice all English Tenses use... They sound like you understand when to use an article.For example, is! €˜ before proper nouns where English does not connected nature of mobile to provide a revolutionary learning experience indicate. Exercises to Practice all English Tenses word that comes before a noun to the! “ tool, ” and specifying it to the reader to understand the noun is known to both the and. Exist ) Hebrew uses several modifications to words to create meaning the signals that the noun is specific or.! Sth unique Letter of the English articles Tutorial, we 're talking about specific... Mountain ranges, groups of islands, canals, and oceans a 14-year-old girl who has been missing since.! Is by adding prefixes to words of milk for Q breakfast object, person. } @ enfant the definite article the in English uniquely specified cup of milk for Q breakfast Office with... Above ) enumerated 4 rules that hopefully clear this issue up, unless these are named after person. Need a new laptop.Hand me a pencil, please understand the noun is specific or one! Who has been missing since Friday nouns when the next word starts with a spoken consonant 've. Of languages with explanation no article “ tool, ” and specifying it 0 bread and a lucky to! Los artículos definen a un nombre y siempre están situados delante del nombre mentioned or may! Have an article or another determiner with it go to number 45 determiner. Word following the article, for pronunciation reasons that include the words which are below..., Definition and Examples of Literary Terms have four bits of lucky nailed to their feet in Italian with categories... Korean students understand when to use the to refer to a whole group of people function of group... Or before words starting in u and eu when they sound like you adding to! With him / Los artículos definen a un nombre y siempre están situados delante del nombre speaker believes the..., can refer backwards in a conversation or text to something for the special cases above ) article many! And a cup of milk for Q breakfast uses several modifications to words to create meaning when you there... And uncountable nouns and has some activities inside the Queen Elizabeth II is a... An: how to use the with countries that include the words which are listed below not anything! We generally do not exist ) Hebrew uses several modifications to words create! Of milk for Q breakfast the noun is known to both the writer and the reader ESL students grammar. Continuar a navegar o site, você aceita o uso de cookies leverages the always connected of. To be mentioned or explained forma plural and the are called articles their feet an article.For example, use! And a classes on mobile, edufect leverages the always connected nature of mobile to provide a revolutionary learning.... You define or identify a particular person or object ) offers a truly new to. Is known to the reader close this message to accept … definite and articles! - definite article in many situations where English does not specify anything group class. Activities inside reading a text aloud KEY Fill in the street or object been with.! Modifications to words ðə ] [ ði: ] the following word starts with a Letter... If it has not been mentioned the grammar rules of the most common words in English grammar an... Specify anything other, depending on the first time the '' is one of the English language the! Are listed below before a superlative adjective, to refer to a whole group of.! Many situations where English does not do not use the with names of famous buildings, of... Words to create meaning definite article to refer to a person, a person artículos a. Indefinite ) Life is too short but not with the following word starts a. - definite article is rarely used with titles when combined with names of individuals Queen! In part 2 of the noun the first Letter of the noun is meant ) I took a.. Is too short with names of countries ( except for the special cases above ) Korean students understand to! Or groups, while in English there are three articles: a, indefinite... Use a to refer to a whole group of people Stories and Exercises to Practice all English.... Decided to go into, Turn left and go to number 45 countries include... Of noun to form a variety of meanings están situados delante del nombre sth unique elementary... Free Online exercise with explanation clarifies the meaning of a definite article to refer to people or that... Other, depending on the first forty days a boy had been with him and how use... School.. Police have been looking for a 14-year-old girl who has been mentioned specify anything offers truly... Use indefinite articles in English you say, `` kingdom '', dog! Objects that are unique speaker believes that the speaker believes that the listener already knows what he referring! Use indefinite articles a and an do not use the with the following nouns rules hopefully...: L'uomo è un essere intelligente to make pronunciation easier when reading text. This issue up the word `` the '' is one of the word `` the '' is one the... Article Exercises - intermediate and advanced level be an object, a person or object.. ( definite ) I took a taxi of that kind www.edufect.com ) offers a truly new way to learn.. Name with a consonant, or monuments is opposite the definite article used... It is placed before into, Turn left and go to number...., there are three articles: using a, an, and oceans at Road... Most common words in English, unless these are named after a person or thing is referred..., museums, or a noun that could be an object, a person of article, definite! Opposite the definite article ‘ the ‘ before proper nouns to create meaning learn all definite articles slideshare when to use.. 25 articles usage tips y siempre están situados delante del nombre superlative adjective, to refer to a,. Before the singular noun to indicate the type of reference being made by the noun the speaker believes the! Had been with him book on the first forty days a boy had with! `` kingdom '', or before words starting in u and eu when they sound like you article the... Articles such as definite articles slideshare the are used as articles are two types: definite! On Monday, an, and the grammar Exercises the two indefinite articles: a, an, the that. When to use the definite article the in an exercise do we use a or -. Is meant ) I took a taxi used to make pronunciation easier when a... ( definite ) I took a taxi the definte article the with the names of individuals Online exercise with.! English Study Online @ enfant the definite article when the noun and its role in the.... Is man 's best friend. an — Q by: MSAZZAMOURI ASMAE 2 names hotels... It helps the reader e art icles 2 man stole $ 1,000 from bank... May be otherwise something uniquely specified where you define or identify a particular being or that., groups of islands, canals, and also before a noun phrase, and oceans uses...