The tree is native to the Southwestern United States and Mexico. Fremont Cottonwoods require moist soil and plenty of sun, but are tough and easy to grow. It grows in riparian habitats where its roots help stabilize stream banks, “tying” layers of sediment together to prevent erosion. Fremont Cottonwood Populus fremontii. Fruits: Multiple 1/2″ long, egg-shaped, seed bearing capsules in a clump, hairless, light brown, maturing in spring, splitting into 3 or sometimes 4 parts with many cottony seeds. Livestock grazing has also been identified as a leading factor in the degradation of riparian habitats in the western United States. Populus fremontii ssp. These may either be gray or green in color. Cottonwoods are generally simple-to-grow trees, doing best in sites that receive full-sun exposure, although the black cottonwood also tolerates partial shade.Cottonwoods are well-adapted to moist or even wet soil, with the exception of the Fremont and lanceleaf varieties, which tolerate some dryness, and the Rio Grande cottonwood (Populus deltoides … The larvae eat the tender insides of the leaves, while the adults eat the outer edges. [7], Two subspecies are currently recognized. Cottonwood Tree Cultural Needs. Eastern cottonwood (P. deltoides), nearly 30 metres (100 feet) tall, has thick glossy leaves. Family: Salicaceae. [18] Fremont Cottonwood … The Plants Database includes the following 2 subspecies of Populus fremontii . Bark and leaves were used to make poultices to relieve swelling, treat cuts, cure headaches, and wash broken limbs, and to treat saddle sores and swollen legs of horses. P. fremontii is cultivated as an ornamental tree and riparian zone restoration tree. Fallen Fremont Cottonwood, Populus fremontii, leaves on cracking mud after a flash flood near Moon House Ruin on Cedar Mesa, once part of Bears Ears N Eastern Cottonwood Tree (Populus deltoides) , early Summer, E USA, by Bruce Montagne/Dembinsky Photo Assoc. Populus fremontii (Fremont Cottonwood) is a species of tree in the family Salicaceae. Its scientific name reflects its membership in the poplar family, which includes the poplars, the aspens and the other cottonwood species. The Fremont cottonwood can grow to about 70 to 90 feet (21 to 27 meters) in height with a diameter of two to three feet (0.6 to 0.9 meters). drought tolerant. It is in flower from March to April, and the seeds ripen in April. Erect or Spreading and requires ample growing space. As one of the major overstory trees in riparian areas of the western United States, and since riparian areas are some of the most productive wildlife habitats, the Fremont cottonwood is one of the most important plant species to western wildlife. Unfortunately there are no released cultivars of the Fremont cottonwood. Cottonwood, several fast-growing trees of North America, members of the genus Populus, in the family Salicaceae, with triangular, toothed leaves and cottony seeds. Flowers of Fremont’s Cottonwood. The inner bark of Frémont's cottonwood contains vitamin C and was chewed as an antiscorbutic, or treatment for vitamin C deficiency. Seeds: Hanging clusters of fruit dispense cotton-like seed (May-June). Duration: Perennial, Deciduous Growth Habit: Tree Arizona Native Status: Native Habitat: Desert, Upland, Riparian. Western Cottonwood. Leaves The Fremont cottonwood tree carries broad, roughly triangular leaves featuring blade margins coarsely toothed with rounded tooth tips. Leaves: Eastern cottonwood trees are characterized by simple leaves 3-4 inches long, that are triangular in shape, with curved teeth along the border, and flat stalks. Fremont Cottonwood has simple, broad leaves. Rounded or Spreading Shape. Cottonwood leaf beetles are approximately 1/4 inch long and are pale yellow with black stripes. Birds are attracted to these trees to feed on the abundance of insects. The bark and leaves could be used to make poultices to reduce inflammation or to treat wounds. Common Name: COTTONWOOD Habit: Tree.Stem: 40 m; young bark smooth, pale yellow-green to gray; older bark furrowed, brown to gray; twigs with swellings below leaf scars; winter bud generally resinous, scales > 3.Leaf: juvenile, adult, late-season leaves may differ in size, shape, hairiness; generally glabrous; blade 3--11 cm, elliptic to deltate, veins pinnate or +- palmate, tip generally elongate. It is in flower from March to April, and the seeds ripen in April. The Fremont Cottonwood is susceptible to infestation by burrowing and leaf eating insects, and by parasitic mistletoe. The Fremont Cottonwood can grow to 60 feet tall and wide in a short period of time and if the conditions are right even larger. Twigs: The twigs of an eastern cottonwood tree are moderately thick, with star-shaped piths. Rounded or Spreading Shape. Fremont cottonwood Populus fremontii. It is dioecious, meaning it can have either male or female reproductive parts. Turning a striking bright yellow in autumn. The leaves have coarse teeth on the margins and turn golden yellow in the fall. The Fremont Cottonwood leaves turn yellow in late fall and drop for the winter. Flowers: Male flowers bright red, female flowers green (March-April). Scientific Name: Populus fremontii Common Names: Fremont Cottonwood, Fremont's Cottonwood Plant Characteristics. Leaves: Eastern cottonwood trees are characterized by simple leaves 3-4 inches long, that are triangular in shape, with curved teeth along the border, and flat stalks. Multiple canker diseases can impact a Fremont cottonwood, appearing as sunken areas of dead tissue on the trunk or a branch. • From 2,000 to 6,500 feet, mostly in the southern portion of the region. A fast shade tree for dry hot interior climates. Genus: Populus. Fruits: Multiple 1/2″ long, egg-shaped, seed bearing capsules in a clump, hairless, light brown, maturing in spring, splitting into 3 or sometimes 4 parts with many cottony seeds. This large, deep-rooted tree grows in washes, canyons, and bottomlands with surface or at least subsurface water. Cottonwood Leaf Beetle. Sponsored Links: In southwest Phoenix I found many trees defoliated by the activities of a minute leaf miner that creates neat little oval holes in the leaves. • Usually occurs with coyote willow. Populus fremontii is a deciduous Tree growing to 25 m (82ft 0in) at a fast rate. Fremont Cottonwood has simple, broad leaves. It occurs naturally in mixed woodlands or along streams below 9,000′. Populus fremontii S. Watson – Fremont cottonwood Subordinate Taxa. Family: Salicaceae, Willow Family Populus fremontii is a deciduous Tree growing to 25 m (82ft 0in) at a fast rate. [2] Autumn colors occur from October–November, mainly a bright yellow, also orange, rarely red.[2][6]. 1 It may have an upright columnar form that can reach to about 7-90 feet (21-27 meters) in height and 2-3 feet (0.6-0.9 meters) in diameter. • Usually occurs with coyote willow. Populus fremontii can provide some challenges in the garden setting as well as providing some very welcome shade. For example, the Fremont cottonwood (Populus fremontii) is native to the southwestern United States but also is hardy in other areas within U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 3 through 9. Some confusion due to hybridization with a Rio Grande subspecies of Populus deltoides subsp. Fremont Cottonwood - Populus fremontii ssp. Easy to grow in virtually any location, the lanceleaf cottonwood is not only a dominant species in North American woodlands but is also the go-to option for anyone who wants to a plant shade tree. When the tree is young, the bark, branches, and twigs are smooth. The National Wildlife Federation is providing resources to help families and caregivers across the country provide meaningful educational opportunities and safe outdoor experiences for children during these incredibly difficult times. The trees grow quickly and are prone to dropping branches and a huge number of leaves. It has a broad, open crown and stout, widely spread branches. More than one-third of U.S. fish and wildlife species are at risk of extinction in the coming decades. Flowers of Fremont’s Cottonwood. Black Cottonwood can be distinguished from Fremont Cottonwood in that the Black variety's leaves are a bit smaller, more rounded and the undersides of which are whitish. Search, discover, and learn about wildlife. Fremont Cottonwood Leaves Flowers: Catkins 2-3 1/2″ long, reddish; male and female on separate trees in early spring. Has Deciduous foliage. Bark is rough and fissured, light gray to whitish. Does not like wet feet. Lanceleaf is a hybrid variety (populus x acuminata). Tree Characteristics. A fast shade tree for dry hot interior climates. The trees grow quickly and are prone to dropping branches and a huge number of leaves. It has a self-supporting growth form. Native Americans ate the inner bark of Fremont cottonwood for antiscorbutic. Fast-growing, Populus fremontii (Western Cottonwood) is an upright-spreading deciduous tree with stout branches clad with heart-shaped, bright green leaves turning a lovely yellow in fall. The 3–7 centimetres (1.2–2.8 in) long leaves, are cordate (heart-shaped) with an elongate tip, with white veins and coarse crenate teeth along the sides, glabrous to hairy, and often stained with milky resin. Fast-growing, Populus fremontii (Western Cottonwood) is an upright-spreading deciduous tree with stout branches clad with heart-shaped, bright green leaves turning a lovely yellow in fall. As the tree ages, the bark becomes deeply furrowed with cracks. Tree Characteristics. Fremont cottonwood Populus fremontii. They are most abundant in areas near water. Edibility of Cottonwood Leaves. On mature trees, the ash-gray bark is divided into thick, flattened ridges, separated by deep fissures. Fremont cottonwoods are distributed throughout the southwestern United States, from California eastward to Nevada, Utah, Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas, and southward into Mexico. Flattened stems attach these leaves to branches. In closed stands, the trunk may as… Fremont Cottonwood (Populus fremontii) • Medium to tall tree with broad, open crown, usually 50 to 75 feet in height with trunk diameters of 1 to 4 feet. WESTERN COTTONWOOD, FREMONT COTTONWOOD, GILA COTTONWOOD. Leaves of the Fremont Cottonwood are heart-shaped, have rounded teeth, often as wide as they are long, and the same shade of green on both the top and underside. It may be best known for its shade and gently whispering leaves on … Lanceleaf Cottonwood. Common Name: Fremont Cottonwood. Tree: Leaves: Bark: Female Flower Catkins; Male Flower Catkins: Male Flower Catkins, Spent: Seeds (why they call it Cottonwood!) Easy to grow in virtually any location, the lanceleaf cottonwood is not only a dominant species in North American woodlands but is also the go-to option for anyone who wants to a plant shade tree. Southwest. This was a surprise to me when I learned that not only are cottonwood leaves edible but they are extremely nutritious. Plant Name. Native Americans ate the inner bark of Fremont cottonwood for antiscorbutic. These trees come under the USDA hardiness rating of zone 2-9. Bark and leaves were used to make poultices to relieve swelling, treat cuts, cure headaches, and wash broken limbs, and to treat saddle sores and swollen legs of horses. Native Americans in the Western United States and Mexico used parts of the Frémont's cottonwood variously for a medicine, in basket weaving, tool making, and for musical instruments. Forest Stewardship Notes, Washington State University Extension and DNR Small Forest Landowner Office, Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center, The University of Texas at Austin, The Department of Forest Resources and Environmental Conservation, Virginia Tech, USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service. Click below on a thumbnail map or name for subspecies profiles. Glossy yellow-green leaves are virtually triangular with coarsley toothed margins 2" to 4" in width. In Mexico, it can be found in Baja California, Baja California Sur, Sonora, Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo León, México (state), and Puebla. The Cahuilla people of southern California used the tree's wood for tool making, the Pueblo peoples for drums, and the Lower Colorado River Quechan people in ritual cremations. Plant Lists: View Information About Other Plants From mid to late summer, most of the tree’s leaves show the ravages of leaf eating insects. Cottonwoods provide very important habitat for many birds. From mid to late summer, most of the tree’s leaves show the ravages of leaf eating insects. Fremont Cottonwood (Populus fremontii) • Medium to tall tree with broad, open crown, usually 50 to 75 feet in height with trunk diameters of 1 to 4 feet. Birds are attracted to these trees to feed on the abundance of insects. It is a photoautotroph. Fremont's cottonwood trees range from 12 to 35 meters in height, and trunk diameter ranges from 0.30 to 1.5 meters. Eastern cottonwood (P. deltoides), nearly 30 metres (100 feet) tall, has thick glossy leaves. It is native to United States and North America. The leaves are cordate (heart-shaped) with white veins and coarse crenate-serrate teeth on the margins. Family: Salicaceae. Cut foliage and branches from surrounding taller trees if necessary to ensure that your cottonwood gets full sun. Populus fremontii can provide some challenges in the garden setting as well as providing some very welcome shade. Cottonwood trees are native to various parts of North America. Bark: Smooth and gray on young trees, thick and furrowed on old. Its leaves are shiny, triangular to heart-shaped, and light green with white veins. The twigs were used by the Pima for basket materials, and Cahuilla tribes used the wood for tools. The Fremont Cottonwood, also known as the Western Cottonwood or the Rio Grande Cottonwood, Populus fremontii, occurs in California east to Utah and Arizona and south into northwest Mexico. They prefer cottonwood, basket willow and other poplars. [4], The riparian tree grows near streams, rivers, springs, seeps, wetlands, and well-watered alluvial bottomlands at elevations below 2,000 metres (6,600 ft) elevation.[2][5]. The species is dioecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but only one sex is to be found on any one plant so both male and female plants must be grown if seed is required). Cottonwood leaf beetles are approximately 1/4 inch long and are pale yellow with black stripes. Height: 40 - 80 feet. Flowers: Male flowers bright red, female flowers green (March-April). The ends of the twigs are usually covered with a brown balsam-scented resin. Fremont's cottonwood is a native tree growing in riparian areas near streams, rivers and wetlands in the American Southwest. Because of the land use in arid watersheds, the cottonwood riparian forests have been significantly decreased or destroyed. Longevity 40 to 150 years. Fremont Cottonwood . Populus fremontii, commonly known as Frémont's cottonwood[1], is a cottonwood (and thus a poplar) native to riparian zones of the Southwestern United States and northern through central Mexico. The Fremont cottonwood can grow to about 70 to 90 feet (21 to 27 meters) in height with a diameter of two to three feet (0.6 to 0.9 meters). Aigeiros. The magic of a Freemont Cottonwood is in its exquisite canopy of chordate (heart-shaped) leaves with scalloped edges. ... cylindrical crown, bark is smooth on the trunk and branches of young trees, but becomes deeply furrowed at maturity. It occurs naturally in mixed woodlands or along streams below 9,000′. The larvae eat the tender insides of the leaves, while the adults eat the outer edges. The leaves are heart-shaped with white veins and coarse crenate teeth along the sides. Cottonwoods can live for more than 130 years. Cottonwood trees grow well in areas that get ample sunlight and plenty of moisture. It is used in planting for: wildlife food and shelter habitats and ecological restoration; larger native plant and wildlife gardens and natural landscaping projects,[2] windbreaks, erosion control, and shade for recreation facilities, parks, and livestock. Location: Look for Fremont Cottonwood near water. Growth Rate: 36 Inches per Year. Leaves The Fremont cottonwood tree carries broad, roughly triangular leaves featuring blade margins coarsely toothed with rounded tooth tips. The bark of the young trees and upper limbs of older trees are smooth whitish-gray. Populus fremontii Zapata, Fremont Cottonwood tree, yellow leaves in December. Prefers gravel to sandy soils that flood periodically. The narrowleaf cottonwood (Populus angustifolia) is hardy in USDA zones 6 through 9 and is a native of California and Mexico while the eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides) is native to eastern North America, as far south as northern Flo… Planting Requirements. There are however, contained Fremont cottonwood samplings that are available from most nurseries in the areas where adapted. During the early days of exploration of the western United States, cottonwood groves were used as an indicator of water, as they grow only on wet soil. Botanical Name Populus fremontiAlso Known As Western Cottonwood | Fremont Cottonwood | GILA CottonwoodSpecificationsPlant Type Native From USDA Zone Light Needs Watering Needs Leaves Life Cycle Avg. Lanceleaf Cottonwood. The fruit they produce is a small, light brown egg-shaped capsule that splits three ways to disseminate many small seeds covered with cotton-like fluff for wind dispersal. The bark is smooth when young, becoming deeply fissured with whitish cracked bark on old trees. Native Introduced Native and Introduced. In 2012, it had a measured circumference of 557 inches (14,100 mm), height of 102 feet (31 m), and a spread of 149.5 feet (45.6 m). Frémont's cottonwood was used in the past by settlers and ranchers for fuel and fence posts. Description. Native Introduced Native and Introduced. General: Fremont's Cottonwood (Populus fremontii) is a tall, stately tree with a rounded top, heart-shaped leaves, and thick gray, furrowed bark.. Fremont's Cottonwood is found along washes, rivers, and other wet areas in the Upper Sonoran (Mojave Desert Scrub and Pinyon-Juniper Woodland) life zone.Family: Willow (Salicaceae).. Other Names: . The Fremont cottonwood is a very fast-growing tree. The leaf has fine teeth, unlike the other cottonwoods. The ends of the twigs are usually covered with a brown balsam-scented resin. As such we shall now learn a few interesting facts about eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides), Fremont’s cottonwood (Populus fremontii), and black poplar (Populus nigra). Fremont Cottonwood The Rio Grande cottonwood is also popularly known as the Fremont cottonwood, common cottonwood, valley cottonwood, marsh cottonwood, alamo and alamillo. Populus fremontii Zapata, Fremont Cottonwood tree, yellow leaves in December. [18] Fremont Cottonwood Populus fremontii subspecies fremontii Plant type Deciduous tree Longevity 40 to 150 years. The dangling leaves clatter in the wind. Does not like wet feet. Width: 30 - 50 feet. The species is dioecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but only one sex is to be found on any one plant so both male and female plants must be grown if seed is required). The Rio Grande cottonwood, a welcome sight to pioneers in the desert because it often signaled water, typically reaches 50 to 60 feet in height, with a trunk of three feet in diameter. More to come! It is native to United States and North America. The bark is smooth when young, becoming deeply fissured with whitish cracked bark on old trees. Beavers use cottonwood for making dams and lodges and eat the bark for food. It can also grow to taller heights and have a wider trunk. Growth Rate: 36 Inches per Year. The crown is wide and the trunk deeply grooved. Many insects—and the birds and other predators that feed on them—thrive in cottonwoods. Click below on a thumbnail map or name for subspecies profiles. Flowers on both male and female species are red and the bark is whitish-gray and cracked. A Young Fremont Cottonwood after a recent fire. Fremont Cottonwood. 1 The habit can appear oval, roundish, or … of cotton. The Black Cottonwood is a large, narrow tree that has 3″ – 5″ elongated, triangular leaves with serrated margins that are shiny and dark green above and whitish below. Fremont cottonwood ( Populus fremontii) is a deciduous tree related to willows, characterized by nearly triangular leaves and small seeds carried on the wind in cottony masses. 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